California-based DualCor has sued Intel over its use of "Dual-Core" in its product labelling.
The lawsuit accuses Intel of misappropriating the DualCor trademark with the result that DualCor has been "deprived of the value of its trademark as a commercial asset".
DualCor makes small "ultra mobile" Windows-based PCs with dual-processing technology.
DualCor filed for a trademark on its name in May 2004.
The US Patent and Trademark Office granted the trademark in July 2006. DualCor claims Intel was aware of DualCor and its name from when it was established in 2003.
It is claiming damages against Intel and is seeking an injunction against any further alleged trademark infringements.
While DualCor has picked out the largest chip maker that uses the "dual-core" description to market high-speed chips that contain two processors on a single piece of silicon, theoretically, the firm could also go after AMD, Sun Microsystems and IBM, among others, who do the same.
Intel rejected DualCor's claims, although it said it was seeking to settle the matter out of court.