Maria Ruiz and her 16-year-old son, Ryan, both of Austin, Texas, have filed the suit against AMD.
They claim her exposure to glycol ethers and acetates in the company's Fab 14 manufacturing plant caused a brain injury in Ryan, a missing right arm below his elbow and cognitive deficits.
Ruiz worked in a clean room at the plant between 1988 and 2002. Ryan was born in 1991.
The claimants are being assisted by a New York lawyer who won a settlement with IBM over alleged health problems caused by its fab clean rooms.
The AMD claimants are claiming substantial damages. AMD has rejected the lawsuit's claims.