The chip is a result of the company's "tera-scale computing" research, which aims to enable PCs and servers to run at speeds measured in teraflops (trillions of calculations per second).
Technical details of the teraflops research chip were presented at the annual Integrated Solid State Circuits Conference in San Francisco last week.
Intel said tera-scale performance, and the ability to move terabytes of data, would play a pivotal role in future computers, powering new applications for education and collaboration, as well as enabling high-definition entertainment on PCs, servers and handheld devices.
Intel said such chips could support artificial intelligence, instant video communications, photo-realistic games, multimedia data mining and real-time speech recognition.
The teraflops research chip would support the firm's approach to new silicon design methods, high-bandwidth interconnection systems and energy management, it said.
Intel chief technology officer Justin Rattner said, "This chip points the way to the near future, when teraflops-capable designs will be commonplace and reshape what we can all expect from our computers and the internet at home and in the office."
The 80-core research chip achieves teraflop speeds by consuming only 62 watts of electricity, which is less than many single-core processors.