US lawyers representing five Holocaust survivors filed the class action lawsuit in the same Brooklyn court that supervised the $1.25bn (£860m) settlement between Swiss banks and Holocaust victims and their families in 1998.
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The suit follows the publication of IBM and the Holocaust, in which American writer Edwin Black claims to have found substantial evidence linking the computing giant with Nazi atrocities.
Quoted in The Sunday Times, Black said that analysis of over 20,000 documents showed "IBM's conscious involvement - directly and through its subsidiaries - in the Holocaust".
The book claims that IBM punch card systems were used to classify Jews and subsequently identify them more efficiently, prior to their murder.
Commenting on the book's allegations, IBM said in a statement:
"If this book points to new and verifiable information that advances understanding of this tragic era, IBM will examine it and ask that appropriate scholars and historians do the same."