But even as development based on peer-to-peer moves forward, users and analysts voiced concerns about the security and manageability of peer-to-peer applications.
The popularity of Napster, which relies on a peer-to-peer distributed network of thousands of PCs to share music files, has sparked corporate interest in P2P-style applications, said Frank Bernhard, an analyst at Omni Consulting Group.
To reduce IT spending, a lot of companies are also "looking to the network as the salvation for sharing resources," Bernhard said. "But there is a real high risk to security when P2P goes outside the corporate firewall."
One company facing those challenges is the Celltech Group. The pharmaceuticals maker needs to run complex human-gene-sequencing algorithms, computations that take about two weeks to process on the company's mainframe, said Neil Ward, bioinformation specialist at Celltech. Because Celltech cannot afford a supercomputer, it uses P2P software that parses out the sequencing work over the Web to idle computers at Parabon Computation, a US-based P2P start-up.
That has cut the processing time for each sequence to four hours. Although Parabon encrypts the computational data that gets sent back and forth over the Internet, Ward acknowledged that sharing data on remote machines across the Web was a concern.
"Security is not an issue for the human genome research we're doing because we're not doing any proprietary sequencing," said Ward. "If we were, we would keep the processing in-house."
GlaxoSmithKline PLC earlier this month purchased 10,000 seats of Groove Networks' P2P software. It hopes to use the technology for collaborating with scientists at other biotech firms and universities. But the US$28bn (£19.6bn) pharmaceutical company is still piloting the software while it performs extensive security checks and determines usage guidelines, said Philip Connolly, a spokesman for Middlesex, England-based GlaxoSmithKline.
"We have all the concerns that everyone has about security and working around firewalls," said Connolly. "Pharmaceutical companies are notoriously protective of intellectual property, so it's a natural caution."
Another issue that corporate IT shops will have to tackle in deploying P2P applications is the availability of shared resources. Napster's music-sharing service works because thousands of computers are tied into its P2P network, causing a great amount of redundancy. Corporate PC networks tend to be smaller, however, and ensuring quality of services is a top priority.
"There is so much unpredictability with our client population that [we] could not guarantee delivery of services on a large scale," said Kenneth Libutti, educational technology coordinator at Broward Community College in Fort Lauderdale, Florida. "P2P services are much harder to back up, in terms of disaster recovery, because you don't know whose computer is on."
Celltech, for example, cannot take its peer-to-peer computing in-house because it has only 500 PCs of its own and would need approximately 10,000 for its purposes, said Ward.
Sun Microsystems last week took the wraps off JXTA, an open-source project that will provide a framework for building P2P applications.
Sun's venture into P2P networks began last summer as the Juxtapose research project, or JXTA, under the guidance of Sun co-founder and chief scientist Bill Joy. The project was intended to explore distributed computing architectures. It also got a boost from InfraSearch, a Burlingame, California-based start-up acquired by Sun in March that develops P2P search technology.
Sun now plans to push for standards to accelerate P2P development within the enterprise and, possibly, to commercialise its own P2P tools and services this year. But the decision on how to package and price the tools has not been made, officials said.
JXTA is available as open source code under the Apache licensing model at www.jxta.org.
The source code helps locate peers and manage low-level interactions among them on JXTA networks, said Gene Kan, a strategist at Sun and co-founder of InfraSearch.
Sun wants to lead the development of protocols for developing P2P applications, such as file sharing, instant messaging and distributed processing, Kan said.
Using the JXTA core source code, Kan said, a company could parcel out an application's computing tasks to PCs within its peer network or on remote PCs via the Web.