"The significance of strong local leadership, local identity and deep community engagement also emerge as major success factors," he writes in Fitness for Purpose: effectiveness of FTTx investment and deployments, which has been endorsed by the Communications Management Association (CMA).
He concludes that "FTTx investments require business models that are entirely different from any earlier telephony-based access network designs."
He suggests that access networks that do not allow ISO Layers 3 or 4 local application services, or that are not "integrated with the backhaul needs of new intensively localised mobile base stations," may be fine for residential users, but are unlikely to support "newly intensive" local businesses, especially if they need high bandwidth.
"This is a problem if standards and expectations are, for the convenience of national operators or the comfort of regulators, set too low to allow local diversity," he says.
Brunnenm says all four elements need to be balanced. "If any one dimension is trashed by the dominance of others, the management model at the heart of the project will inevitably struggle to survive," he says.